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College CET CODE E112


31st January 2022
ELECTRIC VEHICLES – Urban Transportation Electrified
Prof. Chaitra A S, HOD, Dept. of EEE, SKIT, Bengaluru

India is 14 of the 20 most polluting countries in the world. The reason behind poor air quality is the pollution due to the emission of greenhouse gases from automobiles. In addition to this, India is importing 82% of its oil needs and is the second biggest importer of crude oil globally. This is also hitting our country's economy as the fuel prices are rising.

EV!!! Electric Vehicles appear to be a boon in addressing the problems mentioned above. It is one of the most discussed topics in the automobile industry. The first practical electric car was produced in 1880. The Flocken Elektrowagen was the first real electric car designed by german inventor Andreas Flocken. Lovebird was the first electric car manufactured in India by Eddy Current controllers (India), collaborating with Yaskawa Electric Mfg. Co. from Tokyo, Japan, in 1993.

Electric vehicles use electric motors for propulsion and are fueled by batteries, whereas Internal Combustion Engines uses Petrol/Diesel/Gas as fuel. Electric vehicles are four times more efficient than Internal Combustion Engines.

Technically electric vehicles are battery-powered. Electric vehicles consist of a motor, motor controller, battery. The engine is used to convert supplied electrical energy into mechanical energy. Usually, brushless DC motors have been employed since they are less costly and more efficient. They also show reasonable control and save power. In contrast, a brushed DC motor is also used. Since brushless DC motors do not have a brush, it has to be employed with the motor controller to control the motor, taking desirable current and voltage. For instance, when the accelerating pedal is pressed, the motor controller adjusts the speed accordingly. The battery is used to store the energy. Mainly lead-acid batteries are used in electric vehicles, but in recent days, Lithium-ion batteries have been used instead of lead-acid batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are efficient but costlier than lead-acid batteries and are rechargeable.

Nowadays, plug-in-type hybrid vehicles are in use that utilizes conventional sources and electric energy to power the vehicle.

Despite being superior to ICE, Electric Vehicles are not upstream due to their cost. Especially in developing countries like India, ordinary people find it difficult to switch to Electric Vehicles due to their cost. This brings down the usage of electric vehicles.

EVs have recovered in the 21st century due to various developments in technology. Now technology is leading us towards the increased use of renewable energy to reduce the impact of transportation on climate change. It is necessary to build enough charging stations to charge the EVs to satisfy the increasing demand. In collaboration with the public, the government should intensely work towards the reduction of harmful air pollution by using more and more renewable energy sources.